Backup Linux to archive and restore from it

On the test, I will give an example of a primitive copying of the Ubuntu Server system into the archive and recovery on the same system or on a clean new one.

Create an archive with a backup copy of the disk root, excluding unnecessary directories and the archive itself:

sudo tar cvpzf /backup.tgz --exclude=/media --exclude=/proc --exclude=/lost+found --exclude=/backup.tgz --exclude=/mnt --exclude=/sys /

To restore to the same or clean only installed system, check whether there is enough free space:

df -h

If the server is different with a clean system, create a directory and copy into it a copy of the /boot directory with the loader and the file /etc/fstab:

sudo mkdir /OLD
sudo cp -R /boot/ /OLD/
sudo cp /etc/fstab /OLD/

Being in the directory with the archive we will unpack it with preserving the rights to files on top of the system:

sudo tar xvpfz backup.tgz -C /

Return the /boot directory and the fstab file:

sudo cp -R /OLD/boot/ /boot/
sudo cp /OLD/fstab /etc/fstab

Make sure that the copying was successful and the correct UUID is specified in the /boot/grub/grub.cfg and /etc/fstab files, you can see the UUID of partitions on the current system with the command:

lsblk -o NAME,UUID

Reboot the system:

sudo reboot

With such a recovery to another server, you may have to slightly change the system configuration, for example, if the new server has network interfaces in other slots and have a different name, etc.

See also my article:
Transferring a running Ubuntu system to another disk

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