How to hard reset LG L80 Dual D380

Recently did a hard reset on the LG L80 Dual D380 as it worked slowly and the battery was quickly discharged.

I will describe the order of actions:
1) We’ll turn off the phone.
2) Press the volume down and the power button, when the picture appears holding the volume button, release the power button and back press.
3) The reset menu appears with the volume buttons selected “YES” and the power button confirm “OK”, the second question similarly select “YES” and “OK”.

The phone will reboot and the user data will be cleared and reset to the factory settings, you will have to wait a little, done.

Updating phpBB 3.1.8 to phpBB 3.1.9

Today has updated the phpBB 3.1.8 forum to phpBB 3.1.9 with the automatic service pack.

Below I will describe the order of actions for the update:

1) Let’s make a backup copy of the files and the forum base.
In Linux, you can do this with commands:

sudo tar -cvjf backup_forum_files.tar.bz2 /var/www/forum/
mysqldump -u USER -h localhost -p BASE | gzip -c > backup_forum_base.sql.gz

2) Now you need to download the archive with the service pack “https://www.phpbb.com/downloads/#update”.

3) Unpack from the archive only install/ and vendor/ in the directory with the forum. If the install folder is located in the directory with the forum, it automatically turns off, that is, no one on it will not write and walk.
If the files were moved from the terminal, then the rights of the owner from which they moved could be set and the web server can not access them, so let’s specify the group and owner from which the web north is working:

sudo chown -R user:user /var/www/forum/install/
sudo chown -R user:user /var/www/forum/vendor/

4) Open the browser link to the forum by adding install to it, for example http://example.com/forum/install/.
Now it’s time to press Update and follow the instructions.

If you made changes in the code of some files and they are affected by the update, you will be informed about this and offered to choose which version of the files to leave, in my opinion it is better to put the new version from the update, and then make the changes after the update by comparing both files for example in Notepad++ with using the plugin Notepad++ Compare plugin which shows the differences in the code of files.

Hiding the site name in the phpBB header

Did somehow a great logo in the header of the forum phpBB and of course the name of the site and the description was imposed on it and prevented.
To hide the site name and description in the directory of the active theme (style), find the file /style/stylename/template/overall_header.html

Open it in a text editor and find the following two lines in it:

<h1>{SITENAME}</h1>
<p>{SITE_DESCRIPTION}</p>

Just they are responsible for displaying the site name and description in the forum header, we will not delete them, they will come in handy, but simply comment:

<!-- <h1>{SITENAME}</h1>
<p>{SITE_DESCRIPTION}</p> -->

After that, clear the forum cache by clicking the button in the administrator’s pane.

Done.

Solution of Postfix error “mailbox_size_limit is smaller than message_size_limit”

I noticed somehow in the logs the following error:

postfix/local[32288]: fatal: main.cf configuration error: mailbox_size_limit is smaller than message_size_limit

And remembered that I recently increased the parameter message_size_limit in the configuration file /etc/postfix/main.cf, which specifies in bytes the maximum size of messages sent and received.
The error occurs because the value of the message_size_limit parameter is greater than the value of mailbox_size_limit, and it should be the reverse, by the way virtual_mailbox_limit is not specified in the configuration file, apparently if it is not specified, then the standard value is 51200000, which in my case was less message_size_limit.

Let’s look at the value specified in the configuration file mailbox_size_limit and virtual_mailbox_limit (-d shows the standard value):

postconf -n | grep mailbox_size_limit
postconf -d | grep mailbox_size_limit
postconf -n | grep virtual_mailbox_limit
postconf -d | grep virtual_mailbox_limit

Let’s look at the value of message_size_limit:

postconf -n | grep message_size_limit
postconf -d | grep message_size_limit

Let’s manually specify the values mailbox_size_limit and virtual_mailbox_limit manually in /etc/postfix/main.cf so that they are greater than message_size_limit, or by adding the following commands to the file:

sudo postconf -e 'mailbox_size_limit = 102400000'
sudo postconf -e 'virtual_mailbox_limit = 102400000'

Alternatively, you can disable the limit altogether by specifying 0:

postconf -e 'mailbox_size_limit = 0'
postconf -e 'virtual_mailbox_limit = 0'

Restart Postfix to apply the changes:

sudo /etc/init.d/postfix restart

Done, the error should not be.

Configuring the D-Link DES-3028 Switch

Today, I configured the next switch D-Link DES-3028, the firmware was 2.94.B07.

And so, connect the console cable to the switch and add the vlan control (I have it 207, 25 port uplink):

create vlan core tag 207
config vlan core add tagged 25

Assign the switch IP address:

config ipif System vlan core ipaddress 192.168.1.2/24 state enable

Let’s specify the default route:

create iproute default 192.168.1.1 1

Add the admin account:

create account admin NAME

Add a client VLAN (I have it 226), specify PVID and remove the standard VLAN:

create vlan local_smart tag 226
config vlan local_smart add tagged 25
config vlan local_smart add untagged 1-24,26-28
disable gvrp
config gvrp 1-28 state disable ingress_checking enable acceptable_frame admit_all pvid 226
config vlan default delete 1-28

Let’s configure protection against broadcast flooding:

config traffic trap both
config traffic control 1-24,26-28 broadcast enable multicast disable unicast disable action drop threshold 64 countdown 5 time_interval 5

Let’s configure the loop protection:

enable loopdetect
config loopdetect recover_timer 3000
config loopdetect interval 10
config loopdetect trap none
config loopdetect port 1-24,26-28 state enabled
config loopdetect port 25 state disabled

Let’s configure traffic segmentation, if it is necessary that users within the switchboard do not see each other:

config traffic_segmentation 1-24 forward_list 25
config traffic_segmentation 25 forward_list 1-24,26-28

Set up the time zone and time synchronization:

enable sntp
config time_zone operator + hour 2 min 0
config sntp primary 192.168.1.1 secondary 0.0.0.0 poll-interval 7000

Let’s specify from what IP the access to WEB, telnet and SNMP of the switch is allowed:

create trusted_host 192.168.1.1
create trusted_host 192.168.5.20

Let’s configure the protection from DOS:

disable dos_prevention trap_log
config dos_prevention dos_type land_attack action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type blat_attack action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type smurf_attack action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type tcp_null_scan action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type tcp_xmascan action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type tcp_synfin action drop state enable
config dos_prevention dos_type tcp_syn_srcport_less_1024 action drop state disable

For IP-MAC-Port Binding functions, we allow IP 0.0.0.0 (under it Windows tries to get IP):

config address_binding ip_mac ports 1-28 state disable allow_zeroip enable forward_dhcppkt enable

Configuring SNMP:

delete snmp community public
delete snmp community private
delete snmp user initial
create snmp community TEXT view CommunityView read_write
create snmp community TEXT view CommunityView read_only
config snmp system_name TEXT
config snmp system_location TEXT
config snmp system_contact TEXT

Let’s configure protection from third-party DHCP servers:

config filter dhcp_server ports 1-24,26-28 state enable
config filter dhcp_server trap_log enable
config filter dhcp_server illegal_server_log_suppress_duration 30min

From third-party DHCP servers can also be protected through ACL:

create access_profile ip udp src_port 0xFFFF profile_id 1
config access_profile profile_id 1 add access_id 1 ip udp src_port 67 port 25 permit
config access_profile profile_id 1 add access_id 2 ip udp src_port 67 port 1-24,26-28 deny

We will configure protection against BPDU of garbage:

config bpdu_protection ports 1-24,26-28 mode drop

Turn on the function SAFEGUARD_ENGINE, so you can go to the switch at 100% CPU utilization:

config safeguard_engine state enable utilization rising 100 falling 95 trap_log enable mode fuzzy

Fine-Tuning FDB:

config fdb aging_time 300
config multicast port_filtering_mode 1-28 filter_unregistered_groups
disable flood_fdb
config flood_fdb log disable trap disable

Other small settings:

config serial_port baud_rate 9600 auto_logout 10_minutes
enable password encryption
config terminal_line default
enable clipaging
disable command logging
enable password_recovery
enable syslog
config log_save_timing on_demand

Done.

Configuring the ZyXEL ES-2108 Switch

I recently configured the ZyXEL ES-2108 switch.
Standard IP 192.168.1.1, login – admin, password – 1234.

I will give below examples of commands.

Let’s review the current configuration:

show running-config
show system-information

Now go to the configuration mode:

configure

Change the administrator password:

admin-password PASSWORD
password PASSWORD

Turn on flood control and loop protection:

storm-control
loopguard

Let’s configure the VLAN to manage and assign the IP (I have a 207 vlan tag, 1 – uplink port):

vlan 207
  name core
  normal ""
  fixed 1
  forbidden 2-8
  untagged 2-8
  ip address default-management 192.168.1.20 255.255.255.0
  ip address default-gateway 192.168.1.1
exit

Let’s configure VLAN for users (comes without a tag):

vlan 226
  name users
  normal ""
  fixed 1-8
  untagged 1-8
exit

Configure the uplink port:

interface port-channel 1
  pvid 226
  vlan-trunking
exit

Configure the other client ports:

interface port-channel 2-8
bmstorm-limit
bmstorm-limit 128
loopguard
pvid 226
exit

Set the time parameters:

time timezone 200
timesync server 192.168.1.1
timesync ntp

Configuring SNMP:

snmp-server set-community NAME
snmp-server trap-community NAME
snmp-server contact admin location LOCATION

Configure the logs:

syslog
syslog type system
syslog type interface
syslog type switch
syslog type aaa
syslog type ip

Let’s specify which IPs are allowed to administer the switch:

remote-management 1
remote-management 2
remote-management 1 start-addr 192.168.1.1 end-addr 192.168.1.1 service telnet ftp http icmp snmp ssh https
remote-management 2 start-addr 192.168.1.5 end-addr 192.168.1.5 service telnet ftp http icmp snmp ssh https

Exit the configuration mode:

exit

To view mac-addresses, use the command:

show mac address-table

Save the settings:

write memory

Done.

Configuring Fasttrack on Mikrotik

FastTrack accelerates the processing of packets, started working on firmware from 6.29.

Setting example:

/ip firewall filter add chain=forward action=fasttrack-connection connection-state=established,related
/ip firewall filter add chain=forward action=accept connection-state=established,related

The added rules should be before the others.

Let’s see a list of rules:

/ip firewall filter print

We will move our two added to the top (I have them under ID 33 and 34):

/ip firewall filter move 33  destination=1
/ip firewall filter move 34  destination=2

How to enable PHP short tags?

It was necessary recently to include short PHP tags since the site code that I transferred to another server was written with their use.
By default, they are disabled.
For example, the usual tags look like this:

<?php  code  ?>

And short ones like this:

<? code ?>

To include short ones, you need to find the short_open_tag parameter in the php.ini configuration file and specify its value in On, for example:

short_open_tag=On

php.ini is usually located in the /etc/php5/directory, if cpanel is used, in /usr/local/lib/php.ini.

You need to reboot the web server to apply the change, in Ubuntu apache2 is rebooted with the command:

sudo service apache2 restart

How to change the SSH port in Ubuntu

On the test, I change the SSH port in Ubuntu Server 14.0.4 LTS and Ubuntu Server 16.0.4 LTS.

Open the SSH configuration for example in the nano text editor (in nano, press Ctrl+X to exit, y/n to save or cancel changes):

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Find the line “Port 22” and change it for example to “Port 58222“.

To apply the changes, restart ssh (on different systems it can reboot in different ways, so here is a list of possible commands):

sudo service ssh restart
sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart
sudo /etc/init.d/sshd restart

After restarting SSH, it will be available on the new port, and the current session on the old one will remain active, so without disconnecting for testing, we will try to connect to the new port, if not, then the firewall is working in the system and you need to allow it in the system, for example in iptables this is done this way (where 58222 is our new port):

sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 58222 -j ACCEPT

You can allow iptables to connect to SSH only from the specified range of IP addresses:

sudo iptables -A INPUT -d 192.168.0.0/24 -p tcp --dport 58222 -j ACCEPT

If everything is ok, we connect through a new port and can delete the old iptables rule, for example:

sudo iptables -D INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

An example of a command to connect from Linux to SSH on a non-standard port:

ssh -p 58222 user@192.168.0.2

View the system on which port and on what network interfaces SSH works like this:

netstat -tulpan | grep ssh